About the exact dates for events happened between the birth of the forefather Abraham and the end of the Exodus from Egypt.
The Torah gives us precise information about time intervals between the described events. In order to find the exact dates for these events, it is necessary to determine a reference date. This date is the date when the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt was over, i.e. it is the date of the end of the events described in the Torah.
Calculating the End Date of the Exodus
Here is the list of the pharaohs reign periods relevant to determine this date:
- Ramesses 2: 1279 – 1212 years BC. (XIX dynasty)
- Merneptah: 1212 – 1202 years BC. (XIX dynasty)
- Amenmesse: 1202 – 1200 years BC. (XIX dynasty)
- Seti 2: 1200 – 1194 years BC. (XIX dynasty)
- Siptah: 1194 – 1188 years BC. (XIX dynasty)
- Twosret: 1188 – 1186 years BC. (XIX dynasty)
- Setnakhte: 1186 – 1184 years BC. (XX dynasty)
- Ramesses 3: 1184 – 1153 years BC. (XX dynasty)
- Ramesses 4: 1153 – 1147 years BC. (XX dynasty)
Here is the list of the key events relevant to determine this date:
1. The Battle of Kadesh 1274 B.C. → the beginning of the Egyptian slavery period (Read the article “And They Made Their Lives Bitter“) → the decree of Pharaoh Ramesses 2 of killing all newborn Jewish boys → Moses had been born not earlier than 1274 B.C.
2. In the end of the Exodus, Moses was 120 years old. Therefore, the Exodus ended not earlier than 1154 B.C.
3. “The War of the Sea Peoples” ended with the end of the Exodus (Read the articles “Exodus: Behind the Scenes” and “Full Circle“).
4. The Great Harris Papyrus indicates that “the War of the Sea Peoples” ended in the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses 3, i.e. in the period 1184 – 1153 B.C. In the last year of his life, Pharaoh Ramesses 3 was sick. This coincides with the assumption that Exodus ended not later than 1154 B.C.
5. If Moses had been born after 1274 B.C., then “the War of the Sea Peoples” would have ended after 1154 B.C., which contradicts the text of the Great Harris Papyrus.
6. If “the War of the Sea Peoples” had ended before 1154 B.C., then Moses would have been born before 1274 B.C., i.e. before the Battle of Kadesh, i.e. before the beginning of the Egyptian slavery period, which contradicts the Torah.
- Moses was born in 1274 B.C.
- The Exodus ended in 1154 B.C.
- The Exodus lasted for 40 years, hence it began in 1194 B.C.
Dates of Life of the Forefathers
The next table provides references to the Torah verses, which contain information about time intervals between events that constitute a continuous-time chain.
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